Piaget is the last name of one of the most important psychologists in history: the Swiss Jean Piaget . Among his creations and discoveries is the genetic epistemology, defined below, and a series of important contributions to the study of the development of intelligence .
His birth came on August 9, 1896 In the town of Neuchâtel , and died on September 16, 1980 . Already in his childhood he showed interest in biology , which led him to study natural Sciences . In 1918 He graduated in this specialty, dedicating his thesis to a certain class of mollusks.
When I worked at University of Zurich , his approach to psychoanalysis and the psychology usually. There Piaget studied in depth the works of Carl Gustav Jung and of Sigmund Freud . Then it was installed in Paris and began to develop his theories about child development and cognition.
One of the theories best known of Piaget refers to the genetic epistemology , which empirically investigates the characteristics of cognitive ability. It is a theory that proposes that knowledge and intelligence are adaptive phenomena of the organism to the environment, which are manifested as a successive series of knowledge structures that are generated from the reflexes of suction and grip, innate to the human being.
Piaget he admits that thought is largely influenced by certain patterns that are already in the genes, although he attaches great importance to cultural and social factors that influence the way of thinking. The individual, for Piaget , plays an active role in the process of assimilation of knowledge .
Piaget He also said that children assimilate the logic before developing their language, since the motor skills they acquire from interacting with the environment is key. On the other hand, this psychologist stressed that practical intelligence, based on action, is acquired spontaneously.
The accommodation (how does the structure of knowledge to perceive new situations) and the assimilation (how a subject internalizes a fact to a pre-established scheme) are other important concepts in the Piaget's theory , which are developed below.
It's about a process whereby the person internalizes or internalizes an object or an event to a pre-established cognitive and behavioral structure. This is clearly seen when a young child takes an object that he has never seen before and takes it to his mouth, since the actions he performs were already part of his structure, although he had never used them to interact with that object.
Accommodation is the process that the person uses to modify their schemes to be able to incorporate new objects into their cognitive structure. As well as assimilation, this concept is basic for Piaget in the developing Cognitive of human beings in their early years.
For accommodation to exist, Piaget explained that it is possible to modify a cognitive structure or create a new one. This process, which is intended to allow a new stimulus to enter the scheme of the subject is considered a qualitative change in it. The procedures that take place during accommodation are called cognitive functions .
Taking the example given to graph the process of assimilation, if the child discovers that the way of clinging that he had used so far to sustain the unknown object is not enough, then the necessary modifications will occur in his cognitive structure to overcome your goal successfully .
Accommodation and assimilation alternate to achieve a Balance that allows to control the external world, with the first goal of surviving. After the inevitable crisis that occurs in the face of information that is difficult to interpret, people seek to regain stability through accommodation and in this way we incorporate new experiences.