The educational psychology it is a branch of the psychology whose object of study are the ways in which the human learning within the educational centers. In this way, educational psychology studies how students learn students and how they develop.
It should be noted that educational psychology provides solutions for the development of curricula, educational management, educational models and the cognitive sciences in general.
In order to understand the main characteristics of learning in childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age, educational psychologists develop and apply different theories about human development, which are usually considered as stages of maturity .
In this sense, Jean Piaget It has been an important influence for educational psychology, thanks to its theory that children go through four different stages of cognitive capacity during their growth, until they reach the logical abstract thinking when they are over eleven years old.
The moral development of Lawrence Kohlberg and the child development model of Rudolf Steiner They are other key contributions in the development of this psychology.
However, in addition to all these authors cited, one cannot overlook the reference to other great figures who also left their deep mark on educational psychology. This would be the case, for example, of the Italian educator and psychiatrist María Montessori who managed to give a fundamental turn to pedagogy at the beginning of the 20th century.
Specifically, this female raised her own pedagogical method, which has her last name, in which she established that four are the pillars she possesses fundamentally. These are the adult, the children's mind, the learning environment and periods called sensitive in which any child is more prepared or receptive to acquire new skills.
It is also interesting to emphasize the role played in educational psychology by the American philosopher William James, the psychologist Ann Brown who specialized in what are the instruments of memory, the French pedagogue Alfred Binet or the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky who is known as the "Mozart of Psychology."
Educational psychologists take into account the different characteristics and abilities of each person. These differences are enhanced by constant development and learning, and are reflected in the intelligence , the creativity , the motivation and the communication ability , for example.
It is important to underline that in particular motivation acquires a fundamental role in this psychology that concerns us. And it is essential for learning to take place. in particular, it is considered that they influence it from the level of interest that the person in question has to the willingness to proceed to perform a task through the beliefs he has or the aspirations he has in this life and that he wishes to achieve .
There are, on the other hand, numerous possible disabilities in school-age children, such as attention deficit and the dyslexia , among many others.