Throughout history, the human being has developed different ways of exercising a government, with structures and norms of the most diverse. One of them is the monarchy , where the most important position of State is life (it is occupied until death) and is designated, generally, through heritage (the power is received from the father or another relative).
The term monarchy comes from the fusion of the Greek terms monkeys (one) and arkein (power) which means "power concentrated in one." It differs from tyranny and despotism because it implies a legitimate power , unlike these other governments that are characterized by illegality and arbitrariness in the exercise of power. On the other hand, it differs from the republic because there is a close relationship between the power of king and its exercise in the public environment. In the republic there is no inherent power to the people, but whoever exercises it holds a public office.
Who has the power in a monarchy is the monarch , although according to the legal structure of the government or the region, it can receive different names: king , emperor , czar , kaiser , etc. The State that is ruled by a monarch can also be called kingdom , in addition to monarchy .
There are several types of monarchies. These are the best known, within which there are certain variants:
A authoritarian monarchy a government is called that has powers over a territory , which are based mainly on bureaucracy (taxes, single army and economic system centrally managed by the monarch). It was a very common system in ancient times, where the ruler was the King who came from the noble sector of society and whose position was ceded to him by a hereditary bond. This monarch ruled over the entire town, using the service of vassals and peasants and imposing a mandatory amount of taxes.
There have been monarchs who were only puppets of the most powerful nobles or of the Church, to whom they often owed economic favors that allowed them to be manipulated by these sectors.
The first authoritarian monarchy that existed was the one established in 1385 by Juan I in Portugal, of the Avis dynasty. After him came many years of monarchies throughout the European continent.
The characteristics of an absolute monarchy are, a government where the king possesses the three powers: judicial, executive and legislative. Said representative is based on the divine law and the power is granted in hereditary form (son of kings). Among the European monarchies the best known monarchy model was the absolutist imposed by the French.
Parliamentary or constitutional monarchy It is a mode of government where the monarch has limited powers by an institution that receives the name of Parliament and is governed by a set of established laws (Constitution). A group that represents the three states. In this type of government the powers are divided into three: judicial, executive and legislative and Parliament regulates the normal functioning of the Kingdom, collaborating with the King and imposing certain structures and limits on his mandate, especially in the legislative branch. This mode of government was the one that made rights for the first time possible in history individual freedom and to have defense in a trial and is originally from England and the Netherlands (17th century).
The hybrid monarchies they exist when the system of government is situated at an intermediate point between an individualistic and absolute monarchy, and a monarchy governed by a Constitution. This means that the king does not hold all power over a territory, although it retains a remarkable political strength.
These last two regimes, therefore, differ from the absolute monarchy , where the monarch concentrates the total power (There is no division of powers and makes decisions on their own, without giving explanations to any legislative chamber or judiciary).
Since always, many monarchs have been consecrated under the divinization of their person. In these cases, the king is considered to be a God or that has been chosen by a superior being. A classic example of this situation is found in Egypt thousands of years ago, when the Pharaoh It was raised above mortals.
Currently there are several countries in the world where there is constitutional monarchy coexisting with other forms of government, mostly democratic. In the cases of countries in Africa and Asia, the role of the ruler is fundamental, in other countries, merely symbolic. In these last cases to continue with the country's tradition, societies have preferred to maintain the monarchy so as not to break with certain customs, although in these cases the essence of these governments and monarchs must have been modified. they have lost power . To exemplify this we can mention among others the current monarchies of the United Kingdom, Spain, Denmark and Canada. Are monarchies constitutional or parliamentary under a Democratic system and of sovereignty which is in the hands of the people and where the monarch maintains a particularly symbolic and representative role, although he can also act as an arbitrator or consultant.