A dissonance is a sound that results little nice . The term has its etymological origin in the Latin word dystonia.
Dissonances cause a tension at ear . That's why these sounds generate a rejection , unlike what happens with the tunes . This is because the consonance is not tense and that is why it is pleasant.
It can be said that a dissonance is a musical interval which, due to its characteristics, is removable to the ear. It should be noted that intervals are established from the tone difference Between two notes Dissonant intervals, in this framework, do not respect the rules of harmony and are more tense than consonant intervals.
The idea of dissonance is also used with reference to the absence of proportion, conformity or balance that something should have . Thus, dissonance is associated with a strangeness .
A cognitive dissonance , for example, occurs when an individual develops two thoughts or behaviors that are in conflict with each other or with their beliefs. There is, in these cases, an incompatibility between these two simultaneous cognitions.
Before the irruption of a cognitive dissonance, the subject tends to produce new beliefs that allow you to eliminate the tension and achieve harmony based on internal coherence.
Suppose that a young man, in his upbringing, was instilled in the importance of dialogue and avoiding all kinds of violence . However, one afternoon he sees a man hit a child and is forced to intervene, using force first so that the aggressor stops and then to dominate him. The attacker, due to a blow from the young man, ends up hospitalized in serious condition. The boy, faced with this situation, experiences a cognitive dissonance caused by the clash between his moral rejection of violence and his own violent actions, which he finally solves with the introduction of other values that allow him to justify himself (such as the obligation to assist a person that is helpless).
The concept of cognitive dissonance appeared in 1957 when he proposed it Leon Festinger , an American psychologist, in his book entitled Theory of cognitive dissonance. Throughout its pages, the work explains that when an individual encounters this inconsistency, an inevitable process of producing new beliefs and ideas begins with the aim of reducing tension until he regains harmony and harmony. coherence .
When making decisions, the effect of this type of dissonance is of considerable importance. Every time we make an effort, it is expected that the reward that comes with a reward we can appreciate. This reward is nothing but success, what we pursue in exchange for our dedication. If what we get is the opposite, that is, the failure , then a disharmony occurs.
When we face failure, we can try to reduce dissonance in several ways, and one of them consists of focus on a future reward ; an example is given when we tell ourselves "Everything is learned, I will not go wrong in this way". We can also detect certain Benefits that we previously ignored so that the impact is not so great: for example, after a disappointing purchase because the product is not as we expected, we have the option to be content with certain advantages that we had not anticipated.
Philosophy does not see this kind of dissonance as a phenomenon inherent in our species but as a way of thinking and acting that relates to religion and is put into practice to get ahead after a very painful experience or that causes deep discomfort.