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It is known as modernism an artistic movement that took place from the nineteenth century and whose objective was the renewal in creation; using the new resources of art poetic, and leaving the old trends aside, for not considering them efficient.

Although the term is applicable to the various movements that are based on the above, it is especially related to the flow of artistic renovation that originated between late nineteenth century in Latin America in the field of poetry. Which spread throughout the continent and became adopted by many European poets during the following century.

This movement became known in Spanish as modernism, but in other languages ​​it was called art nouveau, modern style and jugendstil, for example. In each country On the other hand, modernism had its own characteristics.

In the field of religion , modernism was a theological movement of late nineteenth century who tried to reconcile the Christian doctrine with the science and the philosophy of the time. For this, he dedicated himself to interpreting religious contents in a subjective and historical way, considering them as a human product within a historical context.

Modernism in literature

As literary movement, modernism had its origin in 1880 in Latin America; It was the first movement within this art that would acquire such force that it would infect many countries, counting the main centers of literary creation in Europe, as were Spain and France.

The main reference of this movement was Ruben Dario, a poet born in Nicaragua, who after publishing in 1888, "Azul", initiated a current to which other important poets of his continent would add, such as José Martí and Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera.

The goal of this new literary style, was to part with Spanish models and relied mostly on models of subversive current such as symbolism and French Parnassianism. Some of the authors most followed by the modernists were Théophile Gautier, Paul Verlaine, Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe.

The basis of modernism was in a rupturist intention with the predominant styles of time . The search for a new aesthetic, inspired by nature and with elements of the industrial revolution, marked the change of paradigm .

Modernism sought to promote the cultivation of the most natural art, separated from bourgeois constructions. In fact, the cult of beauty and the use of harmonious images are one of the most outstanding features of this literary turn. The approach of the artistic beauty to everyday objects, so that art was accessible to all social classes. He did not appeal, however, to mass production techniques.

Other features of modernism were the use of curved lines, asymmetry, the use of exotic motifs and the tendency to sensuality and pleasures of the senses. In this movement, the theme of love acquired a tone more erotic and sensual, moving away from romantic images, so fashionable at that time.

Another quite significant issue in the poetic creation it was the evocation of distant places and archaic times, and the use of elements typical of Greco-Latin mythology, as well as characters from past eras.

On the other hand, emphasis was placed on the perfection of form and aestheticism, as well as the cult language. All inheritances of Parnassianism. As regards the musicality of the verses, they used to be used as poetic resources rhythm, alliteration and onomatopoeia.

Between the most prominent authors of Latin American modernism We can mention Delmira Agustini, Julián del Casal, José Asunción Silva, Julio Herrera and Reissig, Amado Nervo, Leopoldo Lugones and the aforementioned Martí and Gutiérrez Nájera.

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