It is known as viticulture to the set of techniques and procedures that are carried out for the vine cultivation and the production of came . It should be remembered that vine is the plant that has the grape as a fruit, while wine is the alcoholic beverage that is obtained from the fermentation of the grapes.
Also called viticulture , viticulture is usually considered as a science or a art . Its activities include from the cultivation and the propagation of the grapevine until the elaboration, the storage and the commercialization of wine, happening through the harvest of the grapes.
The vine can be grown by stakes , grafts , layers or seeds . The success of the crop depends on multiple factors: climatic conditions, irrigation, control of diseases and pests, etc. Plants, on the other hand, should be fertilized with potassium, phosphoric acid and magnesium, among other elements.
It is important to highlight that, although viticulture is usually associated with wine, the vines also allow obtaining fresh grapes for direct consumption, the production of raisins (or raisins) and the production of grape juice. In any case, more than half of the international grape production goes to wine production. When knowledge and tasks focus exclusively on the production of this drink , you can talk about oenology. Who is dedicated to tasting wines, on the other hand, is called sommelier.
Between the countries with a more developed viticulture are Argentina , Chile , U.S , Australia , Spain , France , Portugal , Germany and Italy .
Homemade viticulture step by step
Although not all of us have the resources to make wine in our homes, even today there is still a clear distinction between traditional processing, which we can also call homemade as it is used for private consumption, and purely industrial. Below is a brief description of each of the fundamental steps of the production of a white wine:
* vintage : Since it is only possible to get a good wine from good grapes, this first step of selection It is the fundamental. We must put aside the rotten or damaged clusters and collect only the healthy ones;
* transport to the warehouse and download : Throughout this process it is very important to protect clusters from falls and bumps. The grapes must be unloaded on the hopper of reception , and then be driven to the destemmer or the juice extractor;
* destemmed : viticulture contemplates this step, which consists in eliminating the scratch, for the production of white wine. It is worth mentioning that there are several different techniques, and that some do after crushing;
* squeezed : at this point the grains are broken to extract the must, trying not to press them too much, since if the seeds are broken the flavor may be negatively affected;
* pressed : the resulting paste is pressed and the must is pumped to the fermentation tanks, avoiding excess pressure;
* ragged : the must is allowed to rest for a few hours so that gravity carries the particles solid at the bottom;
* fermentation : This is the most delicate point of viticulture, since here the sugars become alcohol and for that the yeasts must act, both those that are naturally in the grape and those added artificially. It is important to control the must density at all times and prevent the temperature get too high;
* racking : the wine is passed from one deposit to another, two or three times, to discard the remaining solid particles;
* clarification : chemical substances capable of dragging the remains that have not been removed by the previous step are added;
* filtered out : the last attempt to get an absolutely clean wine;
* bottled : for the success of viticulture, the distribution , so this step is essential.