Reasoning is the process and the result of reasoning . East verb , meanwhile, consists of organize and structure ideas to arrive at a conclusion . For example: "I think your reasoning is incorrect: Mariano shouldn't have done that under any circumstances.", "I don't understand what your reasoning is", “My son, on many occasions, surprises me with his reasoning”.
A reasoning, therefore, implies a certain mental activity that derives in the development of concepts . These concepts can be used for persuasive purposes or to carry out a certain demonstration.
The reasoning, in short, enables the resolution of problems and the learning through logic, reflection and other tools. According to the mental activity in question, it is possible to differentiate between more than one kind of reasoning.
He logic reasoning it consists of starting from a certain judgment to determine if another is valid, possible or false. Since it is logic that is responsible for studying arguments, it also participates indirectly when it comes to studying reasoning. Normally, the judgments on which a reasoning is based serve to express prior knowledge or, at least, that have been exposed as hypotheses.
Within this group, we can talk about the following types of reasoning, among others:
* inductive reasoning : it is also known by the name of inductive logic and has the purpose of studying the tests that make possible the measurement of probability of the rules to generate solid inductive arguments, as well as the measurement of the arguments themselves. It differs from deductive reasoning, described below, in that it offers no tools to decide whether an argument is valid or not. Therefore, the concept of inductive force , which serves to describe how likely a conclusion is true if its premises are;
* deductive reasoning : within the scope of the logic , this type of reasoning represents an argument in which the conclusion of the premises must be inferred. Formally, it is possible to define the deductions as finite sequences of formulas, in which the conclusion (of the deduction) is the last of them, and all are premises, axioms or arise from inferring directly from some of the previous ones through certain rules , called of transformation or of inference, which are functions that analyze the syntax of the premises and throw a conclusion;
* abductive reasoning : This is a kind of reasoning that begins when a phenomenon or an event and allows to reach a hypothesis that offers an explanation to its possible motives or reasons through the premises that are obtained. According to the English logician, scientist and philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (pictured in the image above), who is considered the founder and father of pragmatism and modern semiotics, we must refer to abductive reasoning using the term conjecture. The conjectures try to be the most probable or right explanation to the naked eye.
He argumentative reasoning , for its part, is associated with the arguments related to the production of language . An argument, in this sense, expresses in words the result of a reasoning.
We can see how a reasoning works in numerous examples. Suppose a man who is sitting on the beach analyzes the possibility of swimming for a while in the sea. While on the sand, watch a lifeguard (lifeguard) rescue a swimmer who was being dragged by the current. Five minutes later, a similar scene is repeated. From the shore, the man finally decides not to enter the ocean: his reasoning indicates that it is a dangerous day for swimming.